Design partitioning and layer assignment for 3D integrated circuits usingtabu search and simulated annealing

Sadiq M. Sait, Feras Chikh Oughali, Mohammed Al-AsliCenter

Abstract


3D integrated circuits (3D-ICs) is an emerging technology with lots of potential. 3D-ICs enjoy small footprint area and vertical interconnectionsbetween different dies which allow shorter wirelength among gates. Hence, they exhibit both lesser interconnect delays and power consumption.The design flow of 3D integrated circuits consists of many steps, the first of which is the 3D Partitioning and Layer Assignment. This step hasa significant importance as its outcome will influence the performance of subsequent steps. Like other partitioning problems this one is also anNP-hard. The approach taken to address this critical task is the application of iterative heuristics (Sait & Youssef, 1999), as they have been provento be of great value when it comes to handling such problems. Many aspects have been taken into consideration when attempting to solve thisproblem. These factors include layer assignment, location of I/O terminals, TSV minimization, and area balancing. Tabu Search and SimulatedAnnealing are employed and engineered to tackle this task. Results on well-known benchmarks show that both these techniques produce highquality solutions. The average percentage of the area deviation between layers is around 2.4% and the total number of required TSVs is reduced.

Keywords


Through-silicon via (TSV); 3D integrated circuits (3D ICs); Iterative heuristics; Tabu search; Simulated annealing; Combinatorial optimization; Multi-waypartitioning; NP-hard problems

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